I think a little history lesson is due.
Eich, however decided that Java was too complicated with all its rules and so set out to create a simpler language that even a beginner could code in. This is evident in such things like the relaxing of the need to have a semicolon.
ECMAScript had a few releases and in 1999 they released their last version (ECMAScript 3) before they went into hibernation for the next 10 years. During this 10 years, Microsoft dominated the scenes but at the same time they weren’t improving their product and hence Firefox was born (led by Eich) and a whole heap of other browsers such as Chrome, Opera.
ECMAScript released its 5th Edition in 2009 (the 4th edition was abandoned) with features such as strict mode. Since then, ECMAScript has gained a lot of momentum and is scheduled to release its 6th Edition in a few months from now with the biggest changes its had thus far.
You can use a list of features for ECMAScript 6 here http://kangax.github.io/es5-compat-table/es6/ and also the browser support. You can even start writing Ecmascript 6 like you do with CoffeeScript and use a compiler to compile down to Ecmascript 5.
There are also other noticeable languages that implement ECMAScript such as ActionScript (used for Flash)