There is an internal Bash variable called $PIPESTATUS; it’s an array that holds the exit status of each command in your last foreground pipeline of commands.

<command> | tee out.txt ; test ${PIPESTATUS[0]} -eq 0

Or another alternative which also works with other shells (like zsh) would be to enable pipefail:

set -o pipefail

The first option does not work with zsh due to a little bit different syntax.